Wednesday, March 18, 2020

IMC Plan.List of assumptions and Potential competitors Essay Essays

IMC Plan.List of assumptions and Potential competitors Essay Essays IMC Plan.List of assumptions and Potential competitors Essay Paper IMC Plan.List of assumptions and Potential competitors Essay Paper Ranbuild is a company in Newcastle. Australia that is in the concern of providing steel edifices. The company was formed in 1949 by Neil Statham. Ranbuild has been in this concern for about 65 old ages functioning Australian and the universe market. Initially. Ranbuild started by bring forthing managing equipment and horizontal grain sheds that were specialized ( Ranbuild. 2014 ) . Neil Statham the laminitis of Ranbuild went to Middle East in 1971 and managed to secure gross revenues of over one hundred 1000 sheds. When he returned to Australia. Neil Statham developed back to endorse C subdivision together with applied scientist Charles Resersky that would cut down three-dimensional weight for transporting. In the early70s. Ranbuidld became a public company. Subsequently on it was purchased by Acquila Group. Acquila Group subsequently on sold it to Kerry Parker. Ranbuild bought a axial rotation forming machine that would bring forth stone bolts and guard tracks. It besides gave Neil Statham back a subdivision of edifice in the concern. It was that edifice subdivision that subsequently on became R A ; N Steel Building. R A ; N Steel Buildings became what is today called Ranbuild. Ranbuild is presently bring forthing assorted merchandises and selling them to equine. domestic. rural and commercial markets. It regards itself as the ultimate leader in fancied edifice industry. Authorized traders of Ranbuild continue sharing the success and the growing of the company. In 2004. Ranbuild was purchased by Lysaght Solutions Pty Ltd. Lysaght Solutions Pty Ltd is a subordinate to the full owned by BlueScope Steel. BlueScope Steel is a edifice company that is one of the largest edifice company in Australia and bids respect because of it outstanding record or dependability. service and high quality merchandises ( Ranbuild2014 ) . Ranbuild continues to place themselves as the leaders in the market by constructing a professional image and offering quality trade name to their clients. Ranbuild has partnership with a web of traders that server their client with satisfaction. This leads to increase in profitableness every bit good as market portion to Ranbuild and other traders ( Ranbuild2014 ) . Target market Ranbuild Company targets B2B markets. This makes it necessary for Ranbuild to understand assorted features of concern industries in Singapore. For them to recognize their end they should recognize that their mark market in Singapore have different features compared to constructing industries in Australia. It is advisable for the company to analyse carefully the features of their clients in Singapore. After the analysis. Ranbuild cam mark building. existent estate development company. contractor and hardware resellers. List of premises In order to make an incorporate selling program. several premises are formed. An premise is information that is required but can non be accessed or given out easy. This means that premises may be different from the world of the state of affairs. In some instances it may reflect the state of affairs of twelvemonth 2014. It is assumed that in 2014. the demand for building and other merchandises related to building will be stable and strong in Singapore market. Ranbuild bases to profit from companies that will be seeking for building merchandises to spread out and upgrade their concern. It is assumed that over one twelvemonth. the economic system of Australia and Singapore will be stable. The stableness of an economic system has a important impact on enlargement of ( Mole. 2012 ) . The monetary values that Ranbuild charges for their merchandise are taken to be the same or at the same degree with that of Singapore market. This makes Ranbuild’s merchandise to be competitory. Due to sensitiveness of monetary values concerns are advised non to increase their monetary value above other concerns in the same market. Ranbuild’s merchandises are said to follow with safety demand in Singapore and other Torahs and ordinances. It is assumed that B2B customer’s penchant is receptive ; hence clients in Singapore will work or utilize Ranbuild merchandises. Throughout twelvemonth 2014. the fiscal position of Ranbuild. its clients in Singapore and Suppliers is said to stay stable. Monetary values charged by Ranbuild are expected to stay stable throughout the twelvemonth 2014. In Singapore. market growing and chance is said to be stable or travel to a greater degree. It is assumed that production cost is non included. Potential rivals Primary rivals Primary rivals refer to companies that have the ability of supplying about indistinguishable merchandises or services. A good illustration in building market is Ranbuild. Some of Ranbuild rivals include ; 3D Shed-n-patios 3D Shed-n-patios has been in operation for more than 23 old ages. It is a good recognized shed edifice trade name. Their quoting system gives them a batch of strength since they are able to place different tendencies and at the same clip fulfill their clients. They are able to fulfill their clients by usage of high engineering characteristics in their merchandises. 3D Shed-n-patios stuffs are backed by BlueScope Steel which at the same clip is a keeping company of Ranbuild ( 3D Sheds-n-Patios. 2014 ) . This is seen as a defect in the operations of Ranbuild. This company has been able to diversify their sheds and continues to diversify in a better manner than Ranbuild which produces fewer types of sheds. Another failing of Ranbuild is the fact that they have hapless selling scheme which can be seen from the few communications and societal networking solutions ( Clow. 2013 ) . The Shed Company It is one of the taking sheds in edifice concern. It derives its strength from its design. installations and supply. They besides have many designs that include forms and colour. However. the caducous company is presently seeking and working hard to understand and speak to their clients Queens Shed Market Queens Shed Market has over 11 old ages of experience in the edifice industry. The company has accomplished assorted diversified operations every bit good as undertakings. It gives full guarantee for all their merchandises to clients. It besides has a steadfast entree to build- in doors and other types of merchandises ( Francia. 2014 ) . Secondary rivals refer to houses that deal with merchandises or services that may be used as replacement to what Ranbuild produces. Some of the companies that may impact Ranbuild include ; 1. Parasol Steel pte ltd 2. Professional plastic Inc. Overview of selling mix Merchandise Ranbuild sell merchandises of high quality. This is because their providers. BlueScope Lysaght is known globally for covering with premium steel and merchandise ( Lysaght. 2014 ) . Quality of Ranbuild’s merchandises is widely known and it is an recognized fact that they are long lasting. Monetary value Ranbuild web site does non incorporate monetary values for their merchandises. However. their clients can inquire from their advisers in their web site the monetary value scope. Ranbuild gives a service called â€Å"Ranbuild better wage. † This option is applicable merely when one purchases merchandises that are above AU $ 500. This service enables clients to see improved convenience and besides enable them to fit it with their hard currency flows. Ranbuild better wage gives up to one twelvemonth involvement free refund period ( Ranbuild2014 ) . Topographic point Ranbuild has dealership in Singapore. This means that their merchandises are sold through authorized traders and non straight to clients. This is done throughout Australia ( Kelley. 2012 ) . Promotion Ranbuild frequently introduces new offers and new publicities that enhance client satisfaction. It besides increases trade name individuality by usage of selling tools like web site. societal media account. booklets. web logs and e-newsletter ( Ranbuild2014 ) . Ranbuild presently launched a Weaco Ice Box 2013 publicity. This is a premium ice box for orders placed between December up to February 2014 ( Ranbuild2014 ) ( Refer to Appendix1 ) Promotion mix Tradeshows Ranbuild holds tradeshows in exhibition yearly in Singapore. The intent of tradeshows is to link with their clients. stakeholders and providers that may necessitate airdock. industrial edifices. shelters and gallery. These tradeshows give their client a opportunity to measure the merchandise and its quality. They besides get a opportunity to inquire inquiries and give feedback to the company ( Chandra. 2000 ) . Newspaper Ranbuild should utilize newspapers that have a batch of adverts in building. This is a good advertisement media to make local market. It provides a good gross revenues lead since clients can read catalogs. They can bespeak gross revenues individuals to name them back and besides do purchase on web sites. Personal merchandising Personal merchandising is a good manner of making consciousness about the trade name and besides draws attending of clients to the company’s merchandise. It will besides enable Ranbuild acquire information from their clients straight. Personalized merchandising will enable Ranbuild make a specialised selling scheme in future in Singapore. Booklet This enables a company to increase the attending of their clients towards their merchandises. They besides inform clients about the merchandise inside informations. merchandise scopes and other particular offers ( Chandra. 2000 ) . Appendix 1 Mentions Brown. M. ( n. d. ) . Products. Stainless Steel Plate Supplier. Distributor A ; Stockholder. Retrieved March 1. 2014. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. brownmac. com/singapore/products/ Chandra. A. . A ; Thompson. E. ( 2000 ) . Does public substructure affect economic activity? : Evidence from the rural interstate main road system. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 30 ( 3 ) . 457-490. Clow. K. E. . A ; Baack. D. ( 2013 ) . Integrated advertisement. publicity A ; selling communications ( 6th ed. ) . Upper Saddle River. N. J. : Pearson Prentice Hall. Francia. A. ( n. d. ) . Francia Virtual Home. Sun sunglassess. Retrieved January 19. 2014. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mnjss. com/index. php Kelley. L. D. . A ; Jugenheimer. D. W. ( 2012 ) . Advertising media planning: a trade name direction attack ( 3rd ed. ) . Armonk. N. Y. : M. E. Sharpe. Lee. M. . A ; Johnson. C. ( 2012 ) . Principles of publicizing a planetary position ( 2nd ed. ) . New York: Haworth Press. Ministry of Trade and Industry. Singapore. ( 2013. February 19 ) . Economic study of Singapore 2012. Ministry of Trade and Industry. Singapore. Retrieved January 19. 2014. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mti. gov. sg/ResearchRoom/SiteAssets/Pages/Economic-Survey-of-Singapore-2012/FullReport_AES2012. pdf Beginning papers

Monday, March 2, 2020

South Korea - History, Geography, and More

South Korea - History, Geography, and More South Koreas recent history is one of amazing progress. Annexed by Japan early in the 20th century, and ravaged by World War II and the Korean War, South Korea lapsed into military dictatorship for decades. Beginning in the late 1980s, however, South Korea created a representative democratic government and one of the worlds top high-tech manufacturing economies. Despite lingering unease about the relationship with neighboring North Korea, the South is a major Asian power and an inspiring success story. Capital and Major Cities Capital: Seoul, population 9.9 million Major Cities: Busan, 3.4 millionIncheon, 2.9 millionDaegu, 2.4 millionDaejeon, 1.5 millionGwangju, 1.5 millionUlsan, 1.2 millionSuwon, 1.2 millionChangwon, 1.1 million Government South Korea is a constitutional democracy with a three-branched government system. The executive branch is headed by the president, directly elected for a single five-year term. Park Geun Hye was elected in 2012, with his successor to be elected in 2017. The president appoints a Prime Minister, subject to approval from the National Assembly. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body with 299 representatives. Members serve for four years. South Korea has a complicated judicial system. The highest court is the Constitutional Court, which decides matters of constitutional law and impeachment of government officials. The Supreme Court decides other top appeals. Lower courts include appellate courts, district, branch, and municipal courts. Population of South Korea South Koreas population is approximately 50,924,000 (2016 estimate). The population is remarkably homogenous, in terms of ethnicity - 99% of the people are ethnically Korean. However, the number of foreign laborers and other migrants is gradually increasing. Much to the governments concern, South Korea has one of the worlds lowest birthrates at 8.4 per 1,000 population. Families traditionally preferred to have boys. Sex-preference abortion resulted in a large sex imbalance of 116.5 boys born for every 100 girls in 1990. However, that trend has reversed and while the male to female birth rate is still slightly imbalanced, the society now values girls, with a popular slogan of, One daughter raised well is worth 10 sons! South Koreas population is overwhelmingly urban, with 83% living in cities. Language The Korean language is the official language of South Korea, spoken by 99% of the population. Korean is a curious language with no obvious linguistic cousins; different linguists argue that it is related to Japanese or to the Altaic languages such as Turkish and Mongolian. Until the 15th century, Korean was written in Chinese characters, and many educated Koreans can still read Chinese well. In 1443, King Sejong the Great of the Joseon Dynasty commissioned a phonetic alphabet with 24 letters for Korean, called hangul. Sejong wanted a simplified writing system so that his subjects could more easily become literate. Religion As of 2010, 43.3 percent of South Koreans had no religious preference. The largest religion was Buddhism, with 24.2 percent, followed by all Protestant Christian denominations, at 24 percent, and Catholics, at 7.2 percent. There are also tiny minorities who cite Islam or Confucianism, as well as local religious movements such as Jeung San Do, Daesun Jinrihoe or Cheondoism. These syncretic religious movements are millenarian and draw from Korean shamanism as well as imported Chinese and Western belief systems. Geography South Korea covers an area of 100,210 sq km (38,677 sq miles), on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Seventy percent of the country is mountainous; arable lowlands are concentrated along the west coast. South Koreas only land border is with North Korea  along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It has sea borders with China and Japan. The highest point in South Korea is Hallasan, a volcano on the southern island of Jeju. The lowest point is sea level. South Korea has a humid continental climate, with four seasons. Winters are cold and snowy, while summers are hot and humid with frequent typhoons. Economy of South Korea South Korea is one of Asias Tiger Economies, ranked fourteenth in the world according to GDP. This impressive economy is based largely on exports, particularly of consumer electronics and vehicles. Important South Korean manufacturers include Samsung, Hyundai, and LG. Per capita income in South Korea is $36,500 US, and the unemployment rate as of 2015 was an enviable 3.5 percent. However, 14.6 percent of the population lives below the poverty line. The South Korea currency is the won. As of 2015, $1 US 1,129 Korean won. History of South Korea After two thousand years as an independent kingdom (or kingdoms), but with strong ties to China, Korea was annexed by the Japanese in 1910. Japan controlled Korea as a colony until 1945, when they surrendered to the Allied forces at the end of World War II. As the Japanese pulled out, Soviet troops occupied northern Korea and U.S. troops entered the southern peninsula. In 1948, the division of the Korean Peninsula into a communist North Korea and a capitalist South Korea was formalized. The 38th parallel of latitude served as the dividing line. Korea became a pawn in the developing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Korean War, 1950-53 On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded the South. Just two days later, South Korean President Syngman Rhee ordered the government to evacuate from Seoul, which was quickly overrun by northern forces. That same day, the United Nations authorized member nations to provide military assistance to South Korea, and U.S. president Harry Truman ordered American forces into the fray. Despite the rapid U.N. response, South Koreas troops were sadly unprepared for the North Korean onslaught. By August, the Korean Peoples Army (KPA) of the North had pushed the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) into a tiny corner on the southeast coast of the peninsula, around the city of Busan. The North had occupied 90 percent of South Korea in less than two months. In September of 1950, U.N. and South Korean forces broke out of the Busan Perimeter and began to push the KPA back. A simultaneous invasion of Incheon, on the coast near Seoul, drew off some of the Norths forces. By early October, U.N. and ROK soldiers were inside of North Korean territory. They pushed north toward the Chinese border, prompting Mao Zedong to send the Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army to reinforce the KPA. Over the next two and a half years, the adversaries fought to a bloody stalemate along the 38th Parallel. Finally, on July 27, 1953, the U.N., China and North Korea signed an armistice agreement that ended the war. South Korean president Rhee refused to sign. An estimated 2.5 million civilians were killed in the fighting. Post-War South Korea Student uprisings forced Rhee to resign in April 1960. The following year, Park Chung-hee led a military coup that signaled the beginning of 32 years of military rule. In 1992, South Korea finally elected a civilian president, Kim Young-sam. Throughout the 1970s-90s, Korea quickly developed an industrial economy. It is now a fully-functioning democracy  and a major East Asian power.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Performance Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Performance Management - Essay Example The script shows that whether or not an employee manages to attain the assigned goals also depends upon the extent to which he/she has been facilitated in doing so by the top management. This is the aspect of performance management that is often underemphasized. Achieving company’s goals is not only a horizontal team effort on the part of the employees, but also a vertical team effort wherein top management and everybody done the line forms part of a team. This is a very interesting script. The fact that there are just two characters in it that conduct the dialogue with each other makes the scenario easier to comprehend. The script also provides an example of how peers can educate each other on important concepts like performance management and performance appraisal in a hardly 5-minute talk in the office environment. This not only improves their social connectivity and increases their knowledge, but also helps them develop rapport with each other so as to work productively in the form of

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Non Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Non - Assignment Example When a situation is fed into the flow chart, a clearer view of the type of decision in hand should emerge. In theory it will enlighten a manager to the potential risks and benefits of involving others in that decision. In practice, however, there are some potential problems with the model as it is intended to be used. First of all there is an issue about the amount and quality of information that is fed into the decision making process. Poor information at any point in the model will weaken its reliability. Furthermore, Chemers makes the very valid point that â€Å"the Vroom-Yetton-Jago model and other prescriptive models†¦ assume that leaders can easily change their behaviors in accord with situational demands.† (Chemers: 1997, p. 52) Managers often act instinctively, however, based on their experience in a decision-making role and their own personal style. This inherent tendency, along with pressures of time mean that the application of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago is theoreti cally useful, especially for inexperienced managers, but in practice not likely to be fully implemented, especially by more experienced managers. Reference. Chemers, Martin M. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997, pp. 47-57.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Baseball and American Popular Culture :: Baseball Sports Athletics American Culture Essays

Baseball is an integral part of American pop culture. Many Americans grow up with baseball, playing it before they can even count all the bases. It is glorified, taught, and fed to us. When we play baseball, we find a respect for the game. The respect we gain from playing it has turned the game into a tradition of American culture. It has formed itself into the business of professional baseball, namely major league baseball. Professional players have become recognized all over the world. They are sought out and admired by fans. Because of their popularity, these players have written books, endorsed commercial products, and found successful and rewarding careers by playing a game. According to Wallup, author of Baseball: An Informal History, baseball has been apart of our culture since the mid to late nineteenth century(Wallup, p16). Our great grandparents, grandparents, and parents have been brought up with it and our parents teach the sport to us. When the notion of baseball comes to mind, a feeling of nostalgia and tradition come to me. Many of my feelings and memories originate from my childhood. I remember a beautiful summer day. My dad and I arrived at the baseball stadium to watch the game. We walked up the concrete walkway inside the stadium. The concrete walls and floors made my surroundings drab and grey. Finally, we made it to entrance into the stadium. I came out of the dark tunnels into the bright sunlight. The first thing to catch my eye was the vivid rush of color. Underneath the fluffy white clouds and their deep blue canvas, I could look down and see players in vibrant red and blue uniforms warming up for the game. The well-watered grass on the field was a brighter green than any other grass I had seen. The outfield seemed to be so perfect. It appeared that each blade had been cut by hand. The edge of the infield, where the dark, watered-down dirt met the intensely green grass was a precise and well-defined cont rast. We sat down and I took in my surroundings. There were men walking up and down the stairs selling various concessions. They had peanuts, beer, soda, ice cream, popcorn, and many other tempting treats. The players soon finished their warm-ups and the crowd became frenzied with excitement. The game was about to start. Baseball has its own traditions in America and playing the national anthem is one of them.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Young Adulthood

OT121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II University of the Philippines Manila | College of Allied Medical Professions Department of Occupational Therapy | Block 21 – Occupational Therapy SS 2012 – 2013 Young Adulthood Ms. Faith Deanne Mari B. Caube 16 January 2013 YOUNG ADULTHOOD ? ?Age Range: 20 – 40 years old Difference of development o Changes due more to personal, social, cultural events rather than chronological or biological changes o Hallmark of maturity – adapt and change in accordance to new conditions o More gradual changes –> does not fit neatly into a stage development theory o The primary meaning of adult is social (Rice, 1995). ? Changes are attributed to social factors and relationships o Marked by culturally defined milestones, and by roles and relationships that are part of cycles of family and career (Craig, 1996) ? The relationships that you will build during this stage are relatively permanent. The Age Clock ? Used to define or judge behaviors, expectations, and pressures of adulthood ? Motherhood ? Physically- dependent jobs ? They may consider themselves old because they are no longer fit to do previous easy tasks. Definitions of Age o Biological age – life expectancy o Psychological age – adaptation to environmental demands o Social age – in comparison to cultural norms Maturity o Needs a certain social and biological factors o More dependent on psychological factors ? Physical and social independence and autonomy ? Independent decision making ? Stability ? Wisdom ? Reliability ?Integrity ? Compassion o Maturity is the psychological ability to work and to love (Freud). PHYSICAL CHANGES ? Physical status o Peak of vitality, health, strength, energy, and endurance ? 25 years old is the prime in terms of strength. All motor systems are at peak during this age. ? Dispatch the young to do battle. OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood ? ? ? Peak of sensorimoto r skills ? 25 – 30: peak of physical conditioning, strength, motor skills, organ functioning ? 20 -40: peak of visual acuity ? 20 -45: peak of taste, smell, temperature, and pain sensation ?Gradual hearing loss (more apparent after 25; particularly with high pitched sounds) o Most physical decline occurs after 30s (10% loss until 60s) Fitness and health o Generally healthy age period o Health patterns established in young adulthood are generally resistant to change ? Adolescence is a storming period of change but when one enters young adulthood, it is expected that one? s biological systems are already stabilized. Common Illnesses due to occupational hazards o Chronic back pain – by overworking selves and the effect of stress o Respiratory illnesses o Premenstrual syndrome o Sexually transmitted diseases ?Highest among young adults and adolescence ? Due to poverty, drug use and risky sexual activity o HIV – 40 million people infected worldwide, 95% from developi ng world ? Males – lead cause of death ? Females – 4th cause of death Common Causes of Death o 3 causes that account for 72% in the early 20s and 51% among 25 – 34 year olds ? Accidents ? Homicide ? Suicide o AIDS – single leading cause of death in males aged 25-44 o YA has the lowest death rate among adult groups However, in the entire adult lifespan, young adults have the lowest death rate. oMORBIDITY o Defined as the occurrence of illness o Symptoms often appear in YA ? Genetically-determined diseases (diabetes, sickle cell anemia) (hypertension, ulcers, ? Stress-linked depression) Page 1 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON ? Factors Linked to Health Status o Genetic factors ? However, if purely genetics, it should be seen early (right after birth) ? Multi-factorial diseases (genetics and environmental) ? Diabetes ? Atherosclerosis (narrowing of vessels due to fat planks) ? Obesity ? Cancer health conditions ? Mental predisposed to come out during YA s uch as schizophrenia o Health threatening behaviors ?Nutrition and cholesterol ? You are what you eat ? Carotenoid-rich diet – lesser chance of heart disease ? Plant-based diet – reduction of cancer risk ? High-fat diet ? Colon and prostate cancer ? Increased cardiovascular risks ? Obesity ? Measured using body mass index 2 ? BMI: Kg/m If BMI >25, overweight If BMI>30, obese ? World-wide epidemic (WHO, 2001) ? Why? – Fast food culture – Labor saving technology – Genetic tendency: leptin response insufficiency – Leptin tells the brain that one is already full – Some clinically obese may not respond to leptin anymore ?May lead to emotional problems and other diseases ? Physical activity ? Sedentary lifestyle is one of world's 10 leading causes of death and disability ? Smoking ? Leading preventable cause of death in US ? Smoking and cancer ? Alcohol ? College is prime time and place for drinking (Papalia, et al. , 2004) cause poor acade mic ? Can performance ? Can increase other risks for other diseases ? Alcohol in moderation can decrease the risk of heart diseases in the long run (i. e. red wine). ? Drug use ? Peak at 18 to 20 years old ?Decreases as adults increase in maturity, settle down and take responsibility o Marijuana and cocaine use can lead to memory loss, attention deficits, cognitive deficits, and in some cases death Indirect influences on health status ? Socioeconomic status ? Income ? Education ? Higher socio-economic status and education generally lead to less exposure to health hazards ? Gender ? Relationship ? Social ties ? Emotional support ? Marriage ? Strong social environment leads to less risks in psychological illnesses. ? ? ?Healthy Habits o Sleeping regularly for 7-8 hours each night o Eating regular meals o Not snacking o Eating and exercising moderately o Not smoking o Drinking in moderation Preventive Measures o Regular screening test o Self examination o Proper body mechanics o Ergono mics SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CHANGES ? Theories on Social and Emotional Issues of Young Adults o Normative-stage model Erikson: personality changes ? Erik throughout life ? Development follows basic sequence of age-related social and emotional changes ? Normative events – happens to all people of certain age ?Changes are attributed to age/biology alone o Timing of events model ? Development depends on the occurrence of certain events ? Events that happens off-time (losing a job, unplanned pregnancy) ? Events that do not occur (singlehood, inability to have a child) ? If on time – smooth development ? If not – stress would occur ? Factors affecting response on events ? Anticipation and preparation ? Cognitive understanding ? Health ? Personality ? Life history ? Support systems ? Personality, support system and understanding play a big role on how one deals with unexpected events o Erik Erikson's Stages th ?Intimacy versus Isolation: 6 stage Page 2 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood o o Deep personal commitments to others ? If one does not reach intimacy, one may become selfabsorbed. ? Isolation for self-reflection ? Sacrifice and compromise are needed in a relationship ? YA with strong sense of self are: ? Ready to fuse their identity with another ? â€Å"True Genitality† – mutual orgasm in a loving heterosexual relationship ? Resolution of this stage = LOVE ? The perils of not fulfilling the natural procreative urge. The notion that singles are dysfunctional. George Vaillant's Adaptation Theory ? Persons change and develop through their lives ? Persons? lives are influenced by quality of relationships with others and not by isolated traumatic events ? The level of mental health influences adaptation to life situations ? Typical pattern ? Men in 20s – dominated by parents ? Men in 20s and 30s – age of establishment; autonomy, marriage, children, deepen ed friendship ? Men in 23-35s- age of consolidation; doing what needs to be done ? Men in 40s – age of transition, questioning commitments, soulsearching or midlife crisis ?Four Adaptive Mechanisms ? Mature – humor, helping others, being altruistic psyschosomatic ? Immature symptoms (i. e. no physical reason but feels pain) ? Psychotic – distorting or denying reality ? Neurotic – developing irrational fears (i. e. developing anxiety) Daniel Levinson? s Life Structure Theory ? Evolving life structure ? Underlying pattern or design of a person at a given time ? Phases with tasks and accomplishments ? Has transitional phases for reflection in between ? 17-33: Entry Phase of YA ? Build first provisional life structure and emotional ? Financial independence ?Dream of future achievement ? Age 30 Transition ? Reevaluate entry life structure ? 30 onwards : Culminating Phase ? Settles down ? Set goals that are time bound ? ? ? Anchors life Transition ? Period of p reparation to enter the adult world ? Disequilibrium comes due to many choices an adult has to make ? Periods of stability and instability ? Response depends on self-definition ? Awareness of strengths and weaknesses ? Purpose ? From adolescent to adult ? Taking responsibility for one's self ? Making own decisions ? Redefining relationships with parents negotiation of ? Complete autonomy ?Independence ? Emotional Independence free from parental dependence, one can make decisions on their own ? Attitudinal Independence hold own beliefs, depends on strength of personality ? Functional Independence support self ? Conflictual Independence guiltless feeling about separation with parents ? From student to worker ? Works defines daily schedule, social contacts and opportunities for personal development ? During YA, work defines who you are. relationship ? Reciprocal between substantive complexity of work to a person's flexibility in coping with cognitive demands ?From living with parents t o living alone (culture bound) ? Moving from family of origin to family of procreation ? Taking over day to day problems and financial support ? Relationships ? Seek emotional and physical intimacy ? Erikson: crucial task of adulthood ? Important to do Self-disclosure – revealing important information about oneself to another ? Skills needed: ? Self-awareness ? Empathy ? Ability to communicate emotions ? Sexual decision-making ? Conflict resolution ? Ability to sustain commitments OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood Page 3 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON The nature of intimacy ? May not include sexual contact ? Invokes a sense of belonging, emotional connection ? The need to form strong, stable, close caring relationship is a powerful motivator of human behavior (Papalia, et al. , 2004) ? The strongest emotions are invoked by intimate relationships. (Both good and bad: you bring out the best [and worst] in me) ? Need responsiveness to each other 's needs, mutual acceptance, and respect ? Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love ? INTIMACY, PASSION, COMMITMENT – these 3 elements need to be present to form a real consummate relationship ?When you a love someone, you have to keep a PIC ? INTIMACY – Emotional element – Self disclosure –> connection, warmth and trust ? PASSION – Motivational element – Inner drive ? physiological arousal into desire. Cannot be controlled as it is a response of sensory physiological functions ? COMMITMENT – Cognitive element – Decision to love and to stay with the beloved  ¦ Patterns of Loving TYPE I P C Nonlove (interpersonal relationships) Liking  ¦ Infatuation („love at first  ¦ sight†) Empty Love (long term  ¦ relationship that lost intimacy and passion/arranged marriages)Romantic Love  ¦  ¦ Companionate Love (long  ¦  ¦ term, committed friendship in marriage with diminished physical attraction) Fatuous Love (whir lwind  ¦  ¦ courtship) Consumate Love  ¦  ¦  ¦ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Dating Practices of Filipino YA o Can start as early as 12 years of age (Medina, 1991) o Non-traditional practices: ? Speed dating ? Females paying for own share ? Open relationships ? Internet/other virtual context Gay relationship o Seeking love, companionship and sexual fulfillment through a relationship with a person of same sex Lesbians are more likely to have stable monoganous relationships than gay men. Gay and lesbian partners living together tend to be committed as married couples o Issues with custody, adoption, taxation, insurance and societal acceptance still exist Filipinos and Gay Relationship o Christian values and social norms view it as a â€Å"sin† (unnatural or immoral) to engage in a gay relationship o Greater scorn in low-middle classes o May never have complete â€Å"coming out† due to pressure from society and family Marriage o ‘best way† to ensure orderly raising a children o Provides intimacy, commitment, friendship, affection sexual fulfillment, companionship, emotional growth, and new sources of identity and self-esteem Adjusting to Becoming a Spouse or Partner o Making joint decisions o Pooling of income o Living together ? Tests the relationships as the little that may annoy the partner are revealed. o Adjusting to each other's families o Taking on roles as husband and wife o Meeting each other's expectations Role of Extended Family among Married Filipino YAs o Serve as support systems o Older relatives as advisers o Younger relatives as companions (if couples are not yet going to have children) Divorce and Separation o In the Philippines, annulment -> legal separation, but one is not allowed to get married in the church again. It takes a long time before annulment is granted. Cohabitation before marriage, having divorced parents, bearing a child before marriage, having no child or having stepchildren are predictive whether a couple wil l end up separated or not o Reasons for divorce ? Incompatibility ? Lack of emotional support ? lack of career support ? Spousal abuse ? Mismatch of expectations o Effects of Divorce ? Income (no support, source of stress) ? Problems with identity and loneliness ? Anger and hostility ? Depression, alcoholism, sleep disorders, breakdown of immune system ? For the father, divorce can mean fewer rights to children, decline of income (support), less emotional support, negative impact on career o Divorce and Children ? Effects of divorce depend on ? Age ? Sex ? Nature of relationship with custodial parent Page 4 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON oOT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood ? ? ? ? Divorce in the Philippines ? Divorce is not acknowledged in the Philippines ? Cultural and religious influences affect acceptance of the practice ? Legal separation and annulment legal (Family Code of the Philippines, Executive Order 209) but costly and frowned upon ? House bill 1799, â€Å"An Act Introducing Divorce in the Philippines† filed July 27, 2010 The single life o Social pressure to marry o More freedom to take risks in life and make choices o Haven? t found the „right one? o Advantages ? Decisions about self o Disadvantages ? Loneliness and solitude ? Social risks ? Economic risks – no work, no money ?Physical risks – depression, breakdown of immune system Cohabitation o Unmarried couple in a sexual relationship in a consensual or informal union (living together) o Substitute for marriage/trial marriage o Partners may miss out on economic, psychological, and health benefits of marriage which has ? Long term commitment and security ? Greater sharing of resources ? Stronger community connection o Advantages ? Getting to know each other ? Understanding intimate relationships ? Clarifying what you want earlier o Disadvantages ? Social stigma ? Over involvement (isolation from friends) ? Sexual risks ? Perceived loss o f identity ? Over dependence ? Discomfort on ambiguity of situation ? Distance from friends o Cohabitation in Philippines ? 2. million Filipinos cohabiting (NSO, 2000), 18% of which between 20-24 years old ? 35% agree that live in arrangements are acceptable for couples intending to marry, 20% for couples do not ? 36% decide to cohabit because of economic reasons, 23% because of pregnancy, 15% as a â€Å"dry run,† 13% too young to marry, 3% not allowed to be married by parents, 2% lacking necessary documents Expression of sexuality o Decision to lead lifestyle o To marry and have a child o Engage in premarital sex o Showing who you are and how you relate to others in a manner of dress, roles fulfilled and preference for partner Sex, Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Philippines o Cultural and religious values still a major influence o ? ? ? ?Increasing tolerance compared to previous years, though limited to certain groups o â€Å"Private† practices in order to avoid dis crimination from society o Continued use of derogatory terms Parenthood o Change from traditional family in western industrial families o Trend to have less children and bear them later in life ? Increased maturity and commitment ? Decreased economic advantage of having large family ? Overpopulation and hunger in developing countries o Becoming parents ? Changes in identity and inner life ? Shifts in roles and relationships within marriage ? Changing roles and relationships outside of family (female and work) ? New parenting roles and relationships ? Shifting in previous mindset that fathers are breadwinners and mothers the primary caregivers ? Having a baby can affect marital satisfaction ?Less satisfaction when pregnancy is planned involvement means ? Increased increased satisfaction ? Low self-rating as parents decreased satisfaction o Stages of Parenting ? Image-making Stage (conception to birth) – creating images of self as parents ? Nurturing Stage (birth to 2 years) ) attachment of baby, balancing needs of child with emotional commitment and time spent with significant others ? Authority Stage (2 to 5 years) – examining type of parent one has become and will be ? Interpretative Stage (6 to 11 years) – reexamining and testing long-held theories ? Interdependence Stage (12 to 18 years) – re-asserting self as authority, competing and comparing self with children ?Departure Stage (leaving home) – taking stock of performance as a parent Having Children o marriage? s ultimate fulfillment (Papalia & Olds, 1995) o children give companionship, love and happiness o provide emotional and financial support in later years o psychological value for success to parents o give meaning to life Remaining Childless o Financial burden of raising a child o Fears if becoming less attractive or changing relationship with spouse o Enjoying freedom to travel and make decisions o Concentrating on careers or causes o Worries on being a parent Sin gle parenthood o Exhausting, continual struggle Page 5 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON o OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood o o o o oOnly one of the two parents is present, may include spouses of OFWs Less financially secure than when with a partner Difficulty coping with demands and making decisions Balancing work and raising a child Extended families provide invaluable support ? ? Adult Friendships o Single young adults have more friends than of middle-aged and older adults o YA seek friendships for social stimulation and new info; later on in life will value friendships that are long-lasting and equitable o Socio-emotional selectivity theory ? Greater emphasis on fulfilling own emotional needs ? â€Å"Limited time left to live† o Center on work, parenting activities, and sharing of confidence and advice o Varying quality of friendships ? Intimate and supportive ? Frequent conlfict ? Common interests ? Lifelong or fleeting COGNITIVE CHANGES o Piaget's Cognitive Stage ? Formal operational thinking ? Introspection ?Abstract thinking ? Logical thinking ? Hypothetical thinking o Information Pocessing Skills ? Vocabulary: declines after 59; related more to educational level rather than age ? Sentence comprehension: deteriorates at 60 but may be attributed to hearing acuity ? Prose comprehension: young better than old ? Better at understanding short prose passages ? Better at remembering short prose passages ? Indication of capacity of working memory Memory ? ? Primary (short term/working memory) ? Secondary) ? Episodic (events, how things happened) ? Semantic (facts) (left when amnesia strikes in) ? Procedural (how-to) Creativity ? ? Break from procedural thinking ?Problem solving that produces novel solutions ? Increase steeply from 20s to late 30s to early 40s before gradually declining ? Historians/scholars: peak in the 60s and decline after ? Scientists: peak in 40s, decline in 70s ? Artists: peak in 30s to 40s and decli ne steeply after ? Differences within fields: poets before novelists, mathematicians before scientists o Trends in cognitive capacities ? Information processing at its peak OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood o o Better education suggests better chance of further increasing IQ in adulthood ? Type of course/interest/expertise can affect which skills are honed ? Skills frequently used are maintained ?Judgment and reasoning continue to develop throughout life Beyond Formal Operation Thought Draws on intuition and emotion and logic Experience and nuanced thinking Capacity to deal with uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, and compromise Born of experience and years of dealing with different situations Postformal thought Problem Finding Stage ? Raising questions from problems ? Involves dialectical thinking (accepting contradictions, exposure to both sides of problem) and wisdom (pragmatic knowledge acquired through time) ? Seeing shades of gray ? Transcen d a single logical system ? Reconcile conflicting ideas Post Formal Thought ? ? Shifting gears – â€Å"this might work on paper but not in real life† ? Multiple causality, multiple solutions – â€Å"let? s try it your way; if it doesn? t work, let? s try it my way† ? Compromise, there are more than 1 solution most of the time ? Pragmatism – â€Å"if you want the most practical solution, do this; the fastest, do that† ?Awareness of paradox – â€Å"doing this will give him what he wants, but it will only make him unhappy in the end† ? Know the consequences of the actions and the eventual implications that may be opposite to what was expected would happen Schaie's Stages of Adult Cognitive Development Achieving stage (late teens to early 20s-30s) ? ? Knowledge for independence and competence ? Using what one knows to pursue goals (career, family) Responsible stage (late 30s to early 60s) ? ? Using what one knows to solve practical problems associated with responsibilities to others (family members, employees) ? For long-range goals Sternberg's Triarchich Theory of Intelligence o Componential (analytic) ? How efficiently one processes information ?Knowledge on how to solve problems, monitor solutions, evaluate results o Experiential (insightful/creative) ? How people approach novel or familiar tasks ? Knowledge on how to compare new information with old and integrate this information in the palanner o Contextual /Practical ? How people deal with the environment Page 6 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON ? ? ? Knowledge on how to look at a situation and decide how to look to move forward/get over with it. Involves tacit knowledge (inside information) Self-management Management of task Management of others Studies imply that componential intelligence grow until midlife. ? MORAL CHANGES Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development ? o Postconventional Morality ?Stage 5: Morality of Contract, Individual Rights, and Dem ocratically Accepted Law ? Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience ? â€Å"What is right is what gives justice and is right for all individuals† Morality in YA ? o Cognitive awareness if principles comes in adolescence but commitment happens in adulthood o Growth influenced by: ? Encountering conflicting values away from home ? Being responsible for others Moral reasoning ? Stage 5 ? o Social contract where rules must be obtained through democratic consensus for will or majority and maximizing social welfare o Understanding of underlying purpose of law o Calls for change in a law that compromises basic rights Stage 6 ? Defines right and wrong on basis of selfgenerated principles that are broad and universal in application o Moral musical chairs as it depends on every situation, every context o Discovers through reflection Stage 7 ? o â€Å"Why be moral? † o Post-Kohlberg theorists o Equated to concept of self-transcendence o Achievement of cosmic persp ective (i. e. nirvana) Sample Situation: There was a woman who had very bad cancer, and there was no treatment known to medicine that would save her. Her doctor, Dr. Jefferson knew that she only had 6 months to live. She was in terrible pain, but she was so weak that a good dose of pain killer like ether or morphine would make her die sooner. She was delirious and almost crazy with pain, and in her calm periods, she would ask Dr. Jefferson to give her ether to kill her.She said she couldn? t stand the pain and she was going to die in a few months anyway. Although he knows mercy killing is against the law, the doctor thinks about granting her request. ? Stage 5: Yes, give her the drug o Although most of our laws have a sound basis in moral principle, laws against mercy killing do not. The doctor? s act is morally justified because it relieves the suffering of OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood ? ? the woman without harming other people. Yet he still must b e held legally accountable because society would be damaged if everyone simply ignored laws they do not agree with. Stage 5: No don? give her the drug o The laws against mercy killing protect citizens from harm at the hands of unscrupulous doctors and selfish relatives and should be upheld because they serve a positive function for society. If laws were to be changed through the democratic process, that might be another thing. But right now the doctor can do the most good for society by adhering to them. Stage 6: Yes, give her the drug o We must consider the effects of this act on everyone concerned – the doctor, the dying woman, other terminally ill people and all people everywhere. Basic moral principle dictates that all moral people have a right to dignity and self-determination as long as others are not harmed by their decisions. Assuming no one else will be hurt, she has a right to live or die as she chooses.The doctor may be doing right if he respects her integrity as a person and saves her, her family, and all of society from needless suffering. Stage 6: No, don? t give her the drug o If we truly adhere to the principle that human life should be valued above all else and all lives should be valued equally, it is morally wrong to â€Å"play God† and decide that some lives are worth living and others are not. Before long, we would have a world in which life has no value. CAREER CHANGES Selection of career path ? o Depends on: ? Interests, abilities, and personality ? Responsibilities ? Educational level ? Gender ? Social class ? Proximity to workplace ? Luck ? Parental attitudes o Continues from an adolescent's search for vocal identity, influenced by increasing realism ?YA gives you a perspective of what you can achieve, the only question is how to achieve it o Taking on increasing responsibilities o Entering college/getting specialized education o Getting work experience Entering the workforce ? o Reality shock ? Expectations clashing with reality ? Source of frustration and anger o Growth of competence and autonomy ? Positive role of mentors ? Independence and surpassing mentors o Growth of loyalty and commitment ? Maintaining excitement and commitment essential to mature satisfaction Page 7 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON ? ? ? ? ? Identifying with occupation, employer, industry Gender-Based Adjustment o Males ? Roles they want to play ? Use of their abilities and training ?Authority ? Pay raises ? Job transfers o Female ? Use of their abilities, expectation, training ? Feeling of being in a dead end job because more opportunities for promotion are given to males ? Being stereotyped Factors that Affect career decisions o Work options/types o Changes in work skill demands (technology) o Flexibility of working time (home responsibilities) o Preparation for a specific job o Sexual stereotypes o Labeling of occupations o Security (permanent vs seasonal jobs) o Career goals o Personal values and expectations Job Sat isfaction o Intrinsic factors ? Work challenge (bored or challenged? ) ? Interest ? Work competence ? AchievementIntrinsic factors are the concern of ? YA. o Extrinsic factors ? Salary ? Status/position ? Comfort of environment ? Work hours ? Supervision and employment practices ? Attitudes and support of colleagues ? Opportunities for advancement -; concern form late YA and MA Other issues o Stress from work o Personal needs o Stimulation from work o Security o Actual work conditions Occupational Hazards o Depends on type of work o Stress ? Excessive work demands -; subjective ? Little to no control of work method/areas o Danger of dissatisfaction which leads to low motivation, trouble-making behaviors and hostility ? Which may lead to unemployment ? ? ? Degree of marital satisfaction ? Materialism ? Physical competitiveness ? o Mid30s to 40s (â€Å"midlife†) ? Affected by prominent physiologic changes ? Restricted activities Common Leisure Activities o Outdoor recreation o Parties/social activities o Sports and hobbies o Watching television o Arts and culture o Travel Factors that affect choice of leisure o Work o Finances o Health and mobility o Family and friends o Time o Community o Exercise Benefits of Leisure to YA o Dealing with stress o Providing social outlet o Maintaining health and wellness o Self-development -; not be confined with work LEISURE CHANGES o 20s ? ? ? ? o 30s ? ?New interests New acquaintances Strong physical component Intensive social mixing Affected by the decline of: Social life FILIPINO CUSTOMS, BELIEFS, and EXPECTATIONS o Use of â€Å"tabo†/ dipper o Filipino value system/pamantayan ? Halaga (evaluative): right or wrong ? Diwa (spiritual): sacred or profane, strong or weak ? Asal (expressive): good or bad o Ideal behavior for Filipinos would revolve around ? Industriousness ? Perseverance ? Patience ? Self-control o Kinship ? Child is central in linking people together Status as parent when child is born to ? them S tatus as grandparent when their ? children bear offspring ? Results in deep emotional attachment to parents, particularly mothers ?Marriage brings together two sets of kin and is sacred, special relationship ? Adoption as means of helping less fortunate relatives, and fulfillment of moral responsibility of married couples o Good reputation ? Emphasis on puri (personal honor or chastity) ? Clash of traditional values with Western values and practices ? Premarital and extramarital sex ? Emphasis on taking care of family's name o Ideal spouses ? Husband Good provider ? Good-natured ? Not cruel ? Hard and dedicated worker ? Page 8 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood o Not a drunkard Wife Good housekeeper ? Not quarrelsome ? Frugal and efficient manager ? Not lazy ? Sexually faithful ?Courtship in the Philippines ? Traditions include the following: Visiting the female at her home ? Having a chaperon at all times ? Serenading ? Serving in the house of the female ? ? ? o ? More freedom in current times Marriage Customs and Beliefs ? Siblings must not get married within the same year as it brings misfortune and difficulties ? Necessary to postpone wedding after a death in the family ? Ceremonies in nuptial mass Wedding paraphernalia which ? falls/touches the floor is bad luck Significance of lighting candle, veil, ? and cord OT 121: Lifespan Development and Occupation II Young Adulthood Page 9 BLANCO | MARIANO | QUEMADO | VILLON